The additional tool (add-on) about the design of masonry structures includes the design of the masonry structures according to EC6.
Analysis and design of loadbearing masonry structures according to EC6
In SCADA Pro, any structure made of masonry may be modelled simply by defining the outline plan view, which can be done either by importing a .dwg or .dxf file or by sketching it manually.
The finite element method is the most advanced approach to simulate these kind of structures.
The model is automatically generated by the use of 3D surface finite elements.
Then, through the rich library of wall types, masonry units and mortars available in SCADA Pro, the user can create the desired wall.
Linear finite elements may be present in the same model too, for the simulation of confined masonry.
As a result all kind of wall types, according to EC8 chapter 9 “Specific rules for masonry buildings” may be modelled, i.e.:
- Unreinforced masonry,
- Confined masonry,
- Reinforced masonry.
SCADA Pro runs all the checks required by EC6 “Design of masonry structures”, namely:
- In-plane bending check,
- Out-of-plane bending check parallel to the horizontal joint,
- Out-of-plane bending check perpendicular to the horizontal joint,
- Shear check,
- Vertical load check at the top, middle and base of the wall.
The user may choose to execute the above checks either at an entire wall or at a part of it according to his choice (e.g. a pier).
Presented next is a synopsis of the methodology for the design of loadbearing masonry structures, imposed by the relevant Eurocodes:
Eurocode 6 (EC6) – ΕΝ 1996-1-1:2005: Design of masonry structures | Eurocode 8 (EC8) – ΕΝ 1998-1:2004 – Chapter 9: Specific rules for masonry buildings
ΕΝ1996-1-1:2005 has been introduced for the design of loadbearing masonry structures. Specific rules concerning the seismic design of masonry buildings are imposed by EΝ1998-1:2004 (chapter 9) and act supplementary to EC6. Both these regulations have been incorporated in Scada Pro.
A three-dimensional model of the masonry structure is created utilizing the finite element method. The walls are simulated with surface finite elements (shell elements). SCADA Pro automatically rotates the analysis results into the two axes as instructed by EC6, i.e the one parallel to the horizontal joint of the wall and the other perpendicular to it.
Apart from the case of unreinforced masonry structures, there is also the ability to model a confined masonry building, using a combination of surface and linear finite elements in the same model.
A rich library of masonry units and mortars is offered. Thus a great range of capabilities regarding their properties and ways of application is provided.
Masonry units made of:
- Calcium Silicate,
- Aggregate concrete,
- Autoclaved aerated concrete,
- Manufactured stone,
- Dimensioned natural stone,
of Category Ι or ΙΙ, and grouped in Group 1, 2, 3 or 4.
- General purpose masonry mortar (designed),
- General purpose masonry mortar (prescribed),
- Thin layer masonry mortar,
- Lightweight masonry mortar (of density 600 ≤ ρ ≤ 800 kg/m3),
- Lightweight masonry mortar (of density 800 ≤ ρ ≤ 1300 kg/m3).
All types of masonry walls referred in the codes can be modelled.
Type of walls:
- Single-leaf wall,
- Cavity wall,
- Double-leaf wall,
- Grouted cavity wall (choice of type of concrete infill is provided),
- Faced wall,
- Shell bedded wall,
- Veneer wall,
- Wall stiffened by piers (geometrical properties determination according to EC6).
Additionally, the capability of strengthening a wall by the use of jacketing is also provided.
- Single-leaf or double-leaf jacketing,
- Type of concrete / reinforcing steel,
- Geometric properties determination (i.e. thickness of the jackets, reinforcement ratios).
All the safety checks defined in EC6 use internal generalized forces (axial forces, shear forces and bending moments) instead of stresses.
SCADA Pro performs these checks in the similar manner.
The stresses computed in the finite element analysis are integrated on a section to derive the corresponding internal forces.
The user may define whatever section of a wall, horizontal or vertical, either for the whole length/height of a wall or for a part of it (e.g. for a pier).
- Check of a wall under vertical loads,
at the top, middle and base of the wall.
- Check of a wall under in-plane loading (other than vertical loading),
bending moment (this check is not mentioned in EC6 but was a part of the design process described in the Greek Application Text (1995)).
- Check of a wall under out-of-plane loading,
bending moment about an axis parallel to the horizontal joint of the wall,
bending moment about an axis perpendicular to the horizontal joint of the wall.
- Rules for “Simple masonry buildings”
when satisfied all the aforementioned checks are not obligatory.
Assessment – Redesign (EC8, Part 3)
In SCADA Pro are implemented the provisions of EC8, Part 3 about the assessment of bearing masonry structures under seismic loading.
The design code recommendations are applied on masonry structural elements that resist against in-plane lateral forces.
The corresponding structural elements are the piers and the spandrels of a masonry wall. The design checks are applied on the cross section of the pier/spandrel, where the dominant stress resultant is either:
- The axial force and bending moment, or
- The shear force
Consequently, the critical failure of the structural element is shown and the corresponding structural capacity is calculated for the three performance levels A, B, C.
Regarding the redesign, the reinforcing method of a masonry structural element is simulated by applying single or double leaf reinforced concrete jacket.
Report of the project
In SCADA Pro the user simply selects the sections to be included in the report of the project.
Simple tools allow the user to edit the report header and footer position chapters and create automatically the table of contents.
The report may be previewed before the user can save it for further editing in one of the following file formats: RTF, PDF, HTML, PPTX, XLSX.
The results of the design of loadbearing masonry structures are also presented in a well-organized, format. Accompanying drawings and other details are also available and included for better reporting.